Corruption is negatively correlated with economic growth
Macro level studies, using country-level data to explore cross-country variations in both governance and economic indicators have consistently found that corruption significantly decreases economic growth and development.
For example, cross-country data indicate that corruption is consistently correlated with lower growth rates, GDP per capita, economic equality, as well as lower levels of human development (Rothstein and Holmberg 2011). Similarly, a 2011 systematic review of available evidence of the effect of corruption on economic growth confirms that corruption has a direct and negative effect on growth in low income countries
(Ugur and Dasgupta 2011). According to the analysis, corruption also has indirect effects through transmission channels such as investment, human capital and public finance/expenditure. While the direct and indirect effects of corruption on growth hold true for all countries under scrutiny, the review suggests that they can be mitigated by contextual factors such as the level of development and the overall quality of governance, with the effect of corruption expected to be more detrimental for countries with higher levels of per capita income and institutional quality.
Corruption affects the quantity, quality, cost and profitability of investment.
Many studies have established that corruption discourages investment and acts as an additional cost of doing business, reducing the profitability of investment projects.
Firstly, empirical evidence suggests that corruption reduces the ratio of investment to GDP, lowers investment and retards economic growth to a significant extent (Mauro 1995).
Corruption is also known to distort the decision-making process associated with public investment and affects the composition of government expenditure. Corruption may lead public officials to allocate public resources less on the basis of public welfare than on the opportunity they provide for extorting bribes, such as large infrastructure or defiance projects. Mauro finds that government spending on education as a ratio to GDP is negatively and significantly correlated with corruption in a cross-section of countries (Mauro 1998). Similarly, Tanzi and Davoodi have identified four channels through which corruption affects economic growth, including 1.Be Higher cost of public investments.  2. Lower government revenues 3.Makes Lower expenditures on other categories of public spending, such as health and education provisions.

Lower quality of public infrastructure provisions (Tanzi and Davoodi 1997).
In addition, some researchers have provided empirical evidence that corruption lowers capital productivity and constitutes an important element of investors’ decision-making processes. According to Lambsdorff’s findings, an increase in corruption by one point on a scale from 0 (highly corrupt) to 10 (highly clean) is found to lower productivity by 4 percent of GDP and decrease net annual capital
inflows by 0.5 per cent of GDP (Lambsdorff 2003).
The impact of corruption on levels of investment holds true for foreign direct investment (FDI), as reflected in a 2010 paper summarising the state of
research on corruption and FDI (Zurawicki and Habib 2010). Wei (2000a, 2000b, 2001) also finds corruption to be a significant factor in reducing FDI in the host country. A 2008 study, looking at US FDI outflows in relation to levels of corruption in 42 host countries, also indicates that US firms are less likely to invest in countries where corruption is widespread (Sanyal and Samanta 2008). Consistent with these findings, other studies have confirmed FDI to be positively correlated with governance indicators such as rule of law, control of corruption, regulatory quality, etc (Gani 2007).
Corruption is also perceived to increase the costs of investment. A survey carried out by Control Risks and Simmons & Simmonsin 2006 reveals that a quarter of its respondents claimed that corruption increased their costs of international investment by up to 5 per cent, and nearly 8 per cent of respondents claimed that it increased their costs by 50 per cent (Control Risks and Simmons & Simmons 2006).
Corruption not only appears to increase costs and reduce levels of FDI, but also affects the composition of the countries where FDI originated. Work Ethics

What Does Work Ethic Mean?

Work ethic is a value based on hard work and diligence. It is also a belief in the moral benefit of work and its ability to enhance character. An example would be the  Protestant work ethic . A work ethic may include being reliable, having initiative, or pursuing new skills.

Workers exhibiting a good work ethic in theory should be selected for better positions, more responsibility and ultimately promotion. Workers who fail to exhibit a good work ethic may be regarded as failing to provide fair value for the wage the employer is paying them and should not be promoted or placed in positions of greater responsibility.

Work ethic is basically the belief that work is a good moral. Its also refers to a sets of values that are defined and characterized by diligence and hard work. Work ethic can as well be defined as the inherent ability of work to strengthen character.

 The Importance of a Good Work Ethic
Work Ethics For Successful Careers
Today’s business environment is not only fast-paced, but also highly competitive. In order to keep pace and stay ahead, possession of several key work ethics is a plus for achieving a successful career. Holding key traits such as attendance, character, teamwork, appearance, and attitude add value to both you as a person and your company. Successful careers come in many flavours, but work ethics are a main ingredient in most recipes for success.
Work Ethics for Development Professionals

Whether one is a student or an employee, attendance is mandatory to ensure success in your personal life. Attendance in the classroom is critical for learning new skills and techniques. Having this knowledge opens doors and presents opportunities for career minded people. As one enters the workplace, attendance is necessary to meet the timely obligations of this fast-paced environment. Whether attending classes or taking on the role of CEO, knowing one’s schedule is very important. To ensure that a schedule is followed, adequate rest and reliable transportation should be top priorities. Absences from school or work should be reported as soon as possible. This gives authorities time to find another person to help perform your duties while you are away. Plan to return to the workplace as quickly as possible.
Character is how others perceive someone. Much like an actor who plays a role, the character traits that one possesses portray an image in others’ minds. One’s character develops as actions become habits. These habits reveal one’s character.
Eventually, this role determines the outcome of one’s life. Being aware of your actions and habits plus improving on faults strengthens one’s character.
Common sense and barbers have long known that two heads are better than one.
Teamwork is what gives strength to a working force. Prejudices and stereotyping have no home in teamwork. Respect evicted them. Learning to cooperate with your teammates as well as being assertive is important in keeping track of things. Treat customers with genuine respect and manners. They are your friends. Team members should constantly stay up to date with new learning opportunities, but at the same time, keep confidential information private. Your trust is assumed and expected.

Work Ethics for Development Professionals
Appearance is one work ethic that really shows. Take pride in how people perceive you. Your clothes should be clean and pressed. Make a habit of bathing daily along with such necessities as brushing your teeth and breathing. Behaviour affects appearance. Learn to be polite and attend to people’s needs.
A professional attitude towards yourself and your chosen career is critical. Learn to adapt to the many, multifaceted wonders of life. Be open and accept the changes that will surely come. No one likes anyone who brags or whines constantly. Let your language show positive ideas. Your customers also deserve the same professionalism that is expected by all. Be happy. Let others know that you are there to help.
Work ethics have been the backbone of success for centuries. By taking the time to develop great work ethics whether one is in the classroom or the workplace, success will be there for you. Combining work ethics with professional skills invites success to a celebration, and that celebration is all about you.
Positive Work Ethics A work ethic of any kind not only includes how you feel about your place of employment or position but also how you perform the duties of your job. According to All About Philosophy's website, a work ethic includes your attitude, communication abilities, behavior toward coworkers, honesty and accountability.
What sets a positive work ethic apart from a negative work ethic is the focus on confidence and encouraging interactions with co-workers. Your attitude toward your job and position in a positive work ethic is just that -- positive. You arrive at work with a smile on your face, focused on the task at hand and committed to performing your duties to the best of your ability.

Work Ethics for Development Professionals
Why Ethics Are Important A work ethic, especially a positive work ethic, is important from a business perspective for the confidence it breeds in clients and consumers. Your positive attitude and dedication to a client's needs or creation of a product can boost your business' reputation as a company that deals honestly and fairly. Ethics also work to build a moral compass within a business and helps discourage attitudes and business models that seek to cut corners in the name of making a profit.
Impact for Employers who emphasize a positive work ethic must be absolute in maintaining the environment for it to thrive according to the Global Ethics University. This means a business can allow no room for moral ambiguity, rationalization or ego in its positive work ethics model. Otherwise the strategy may fail. Just one rogue executive taking excessive privileges, such as private trips on a company plane, can ruin all the good will built by a positive work ethic.
Effects Around the Office
Ethics spring from within and are difficult to teach in the traditional sense according to All About Philosophy's website. That doesn't mean a positive work ethic can't be contagious. An employee who accepts each job with equal tenacity and dedication forces co-workers to follow suit or risk being left behind. A worker who does all this with a smile on his face can help others to enjoy the job a little more, thereby increasing productivity and worker morale.

Work Ethics for Development Professionals
Five Characteristics of Having Good Work Ethics When you have a good work ethic, you are dedicated to job that you deem valuable. You hold yourself to high standards of responsibility. You also keep yourself accountable for getting work done right and on time, and for making good
business decisions that help people and companies succeed. Having a solid work ethic means you understand that productivity, organizational skills, being reliable and possessing good character are all attributes that successful people share. Honest stealing personal property, sabotaging a coworker's client presentation, or taking someone's idea and making it your own are all ways that dishonesty creeps into the workplace. Employees with strong ethics refrain from lying or cheating to make others look bad in the hopes of making themselves appear smarter. Instead, they take responsibility for mistakes, own up to failures and keep the lines of communication open with everyone involved.
Refrains from Gossip Workplace gossip can be destructive. When employees gossip about their peers, bosses or even clients, it's considered deviant behaviour. An employee with good workplace ethics refuses to engage in gossip or even listen it. This person will encourage others to mind their own business, or else address the person or situation head-on so that assumptions and badmouthing can stop. Doing so helps eliminate resentment among co-worker's and helps keep morale up. 

Values Diversity People with a good work ethic understand the importance of a diverse workplace. When you value everybody's contributions -- regardless of ability, age, gender or race -- it allows for more creativity and better problem solving. Diversity in the workplace contributes to successful client interactions. Overall, employee morale is higher.

Work Ethics for Development Professionals
Respects Others An employee with a strong work ethic is rarely late. You respect everyone's time, from co-workers to clients to interviewees. You're also polite, conscientious of people's feelings and considerate of workers in a shared workspace. In addition, someone with a strong work ethic uses time wisely so that deadlines are met. You'll keep personal phone conversations quiet and not disrupt others. Out of respect, you'll also hear and consider everyone's opinions.

Having a good work ethic means you cooperate with others. While work may not always be satisfying or enjoyable, you see the bigger picture and do what is necessary for the team and company. Instead of debating every issue and finding reasons why things can't get done, you use strong conflict resolution skills to solve problems and manage the workload.

Source;- National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management(MANAGE)